All posts by Celine

Miray Cosmetics is owned and operated by Celine Ozlem. Celine got her master's degree from ASU in education and holds a bachelor's degree in economics. She is trained by internationally acclaimed experts in cosmetics industry in New York and Los Angeles over a She uses only the latest technology available to achieve the best results for her clients and believes in continuing education.


The Epidermis

The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin, and protects the body from the environment. The thickness of the epidermis varies in different types of skin; it is only .05 mm thick on the eyelids, and is 1.5 mm thick on the palms and the soles of the feet. The epidermis contains the melanocytes (the cells in which melanoma develops), the Langerhans’ cells (involved in the immune system in the skin), Merkel cells and sensory nerves. The epidermis layer itself is made up of five sublayers that work together to continually rebuild the surface of the skin:

The Basal Cell Layer

The basal layer is the innermost layer of the epidermis, and contains small round cells called basal cells. The basal cells continually divide, and new cells constantly push older ones up toward the surface of the skin, where they are eventually shed. The basal cell layer is also known as the stratum germinativum due to the fact that it is constantly germinating (producing) new cells.

Illustration of the layers of the skin

The basal cell layer contains cells called melanocytes. Melanocytes produce the skin coloring or pigment known as melanin, which gives skin its tan or brown color and helps protect the deeper layers of the skin from the harmful effects of the sun. Sun exposure causes melanocytes to increase production of melanin in order to protect the skin from damaging ultraviolet rays, producing a suntan. Patches of melanin in the skin cause birthmarks, freckles and age spots. 

The Squamous Cell Layer

The squamous cell layer is located above the basal layer, and is also known as the stratum spinosum or “spiny layer” due to the fact that the cells are held together with spiny projections. Within this layer are the basal cells that have been pushed upward, however these maturing cells are now called squamous cells, or keratinocytes. Keratinocytes produce keratin, a tough, protective protein that makes up the majority of the structure of the skin, hair, and nails.

The squamous cell layer is the thickest layer of the epidermis, and is involved in the transfer of certain substances in and out of the body. The squamous cell layer also contains cells called Langerhans cells. These cells attach themselves to antigens that invade damaged skin and alert the immune system to their presence.

The Stratum Granulosum & the Stratum Lucidum

The keratinocytes from the squamous layer are then pushed up through two thin epidermal layers called the stratum granulosum and the stratum lucidum. As these cells move further towards the surface of the skin, they get bigger and flatter and adhere together, and then eventually become dehydrated and die. This process results in the cells fusing together into layers of tough, durable material, which continue to migrate up to the surface of the skin.

The Stratum Corneum

The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of the epidermis, and is made up of 10 to 30 thin layers of continually shedding, dead keratinocytes. The stratum corneum is also known as the “horny layer,” because its cells are toughened like an animal’s horn. As the outermost cells age and wear down, they are replaced by new layers of strong, long-wearing cells. The stratum corneum is sloughed off continually as new cells take its place, but this shedding process slows down with age. Complete cell turnover occurs every 28 to 30 days in young adults, while the same process takes 45 to 50 days in elderly adults.

The Dermis

The dermis is located beneath the epidermis and is the thickest of the three layers of the skin (1.5 to 4 mm thick), making up approximately 90 percent of the thickness of the skin. The main functions of the dermis are to regulate temperature and to supply the epidermis with nutrient-saturated blood. Much of the body’s water supply is stored within the dermis. “

Pigment placement into skin during 

What is happening when microblading artist places pigment into the skin? If it is done with micropigmentation or “PMU” machine, which uses needles to penetrate the epidermis, then the pigment is delivered into the upper dermis. i.e. under the melanin layer.  The process damages the epidermis, and the top layer of the dermis (papillary layer) .The needle moves with the speed  of 50-3000 times a minute, resulting in creating  not so crispy and defined lines as in the correct microblading method.  Machine micropigmentation is recommended when the  “makeup” or powder effect is desirable. 

The body starts to react immediately. Initial step is to stop bleeding, then to restore the wound closure. The cells responsible for immune reaction, i.e. fighting pigment particles,  consider them as foreign intruders and begin to move into the area of penetration. Neutrophils arrive earlier and macrophages –  later.  Fibroblasts start rebuilding upper layer cells . The healing process starts. 

It takes approximately 5-10 days for initial healing. During that period the skin can be irritated, turn red, itchy.  So-called granulation tissue is being restored during that process.  Later fibrous tissue is formed. Redness disappear. Usually  it takes 3-5 weeks for the full healing.

 What is happening with the pigment particles?  Partially they are pushed back through the epidermis. The remaining are taken by fibroblast, macrophages, keratinocytes and mast cells and settled in the upper dermis layers under the restored granulation tissue. Some pigment particles are taken deeper into dermis, some are being taken to the lymph system and withdrawn from the body. 

The ink that is used in microblading and micropigmentation consists of pigments (a composition of 3-4 powder substances of different color) and solvents: usually propylene glycol,  glycerine or ethylene.

Pigments intended for the eyebrows (different shades of brown) are not just brown particles. It’s a mixure of usually black, red and yellow pigments (sometimes, olive or light grey for blonde shades)

They can be non-organic (usually oxides of iron AKA iron oxides) or synthetic.  Their molecules are different  in size and structure and the body reaction to them can vary. Synthetic (often marketed as organic) can even create ties with the body proteins and travel to areas outside the skin.  Iron oxides are neutral and safe but you will need to inform the doctor that you have done microblading or permanent makeup previously, when you planning an MRI scan since the magnetic fields in the very rare cases can induce the electric current in the iron atoms that causes the skin to  irritatate and swell. It should be more a concern of the wider pigment areas, like traditional tattoo or lips, rather than eyebrows.

The phagocytic cells, recognize pigment particles as foreign bodies and try to move them to different layers of skin. Depending on where the  color pigments being transferred to, result sometimes in eyebrows turning pinkish or bluish shades. The experienced artist with extensive knowledge of pigments, skin types and reaction can prevent it by choosing the correctly composed ink.

The Tyndall effect

The other major factor of color change, probably the most important one is so called Tyndall effect or “Tyndall scattering” named after the 19th century scientist John Tyndall. The light when goes through any colloid substance breaks down to different wavelength rays. The skin lets warmer red spectrum penetrate deeper than colder blue and UV lights. You can try to put the flashlight through the skin and see that it has orange/red color. That because of the Tyndall effect. Wilipedia

The deeper the pigment is in the skin the more blue it looks. With time pigment go deeper and deeper, so any type of tattoo or micropigmentation that is injected into the dermis will end up turning bluish.

On top of that in the beginning of this article, we described the layers on the epidermis, the lowest is melanin layer. Melanocytes react to the UV spectrum on the sunlight,  causing sun tanning effect. So if pigment is in the dermis,  it means it is under the melanin layer and the more those areas are  exposed to the sun the  bleaker and more bluish the pigment will look with time.

Here is how it looked on one of my patient’s revision case before, and how I corrected it with Microblading without patient going through a lengthy and expensive laser tattoo removal series of treatment:

Microblading vs Old “PMU”

Microblading is the newest trend in permanent makeup industry. Unlike old “PMU” done with powerfull machines, it is done manually by the artist making hair looking micro cuts (strokes), with a special tool, called “pen”. This tool has a set of 7-21 needles aligned together to create a blade shaped line. The artist soaks the pen into the ink, like a painter soaks the brush into the paint, then makes a cut into the highest level of the dermis (the basal layer). The process of drawing the hair one by one like that is very labor intensive and requires substantial experience and thorough knowledge of skin anatomy from the artist. After the Microblading procedure the pigment stays on much shallower levels than after older types of traditional tattoo or “PMU”: 

Patient’s eyebrows before procedure

As in  the processes we described earlier in the article, the skin cells responsible for regeneration and immune reaction try to push the pigment particles back to the surface rather then bringing them into the dermis. Initial skin reaction can be similar to older types of traditional tattoo or “PMU”: redness, irritation, etc.

After approximately 4 weeks the skin is healed and usually 30-60% of pigment disappears. The hair stroke lines become slightly thicker and if you look very closely is slightly more blurry than right after the initial treatment. And usually around this time it is required to do a touch up treatment to refill the loss.

Eventually after 12-18 months, depending on the skin type, lifestyle activity, like suntanning, any activities causing sweat, like sports, sauna, and water related activity, alcohol consumption etc, the pigment disappears almost entirely. That’s why the Microblading is also named “semi” permanent makeup. We cannot agree with this term since it is not completely semi-permanent. Some pigment particles can stay in the body permanently, but we agree that the visual effect will disappear after 12-18 months.

Microblading requires much more control from the artist. The pigment that placed not deep enough can vanish after a few weeks or even days. If the artist cuts into the skin too deep, reaching the hypodermis level with the blood vessels, then it can cause some minor bleeding. The skin cells will start their restoring functions in much more aggressive way, causing pigment disappearance and even small scars. The other effect when deeper dermis layers are penetrated is the wound restoration is happening at much larger intensity, bringing new cells to the skin surface and getting read of older dead skin cells at the much much higher volumes. That causing scabbing and flaking of. That in turn results in much higher loss of the injected pigment. Sometimes to the extent of complete newly applied hair strokes vanishing.

The inexperienced artists make this mistake often. The problem also is complicated by the fact that skin thickness is not the same. It depends on the persons skin type, and has different thickness in different areas. Even in the eyebrow, the skin gets thinner closer to the end of the arch. Only experienced and knowledgeable specialist is able to make precise cuts at the right depth.

The other important factor is the ink used should be originally intended for Microblading. The machine inks are thinnner, so that they can be delivered by the needles that are moving at a very high speed. If this type of ink is used in Microblading, chances are that the strokes will disappear much faster or even worse: blur into one another.

Tips For Beginning A Successful PMU Business

Start as you mean to go on and allow your business to evolve with time without losing its identity.

  • Look at who is your market (clients) and where to find them (location).
  • Evaluate the best branding for your business whether it is a business name or operating under your own name.
  • Get your certificates. Ensure clients can see this and your insurance.
  • Create a portfolio of your works on ipad, a hard copy brochure and in addition a reception TV with your treatment photos rotating with case studies.
  • Open events are good for creating awareness at the location you work from. Offer a promotional saving if starting out.
  • Recommend a friend schemes are a must.
  • The obligatory business cards, flyers, brochures and website are a first.
  • Decide whether your services will be from one location or if you wish to visit clients to capture a wider footfall.
  • Network with local businesses to create referral schemes, offer to perform a heavily discounted treatment on a salon/clinic owner in return for reduced room hire or marketing on their web site.
  • Do not agree to a high commission % when negotiating a room hire. You bring kudos to a clinic and a new footfall of clients. They need to see your services as valuable.
  • Keep up to date with blogs and whilst funds are limited create your own editorials and send them to magazines with interesting content and photos.
  • Set up a separate bank account to follow and repost your business expenses.
  • Lastly, there are amazing deals out there particularly with Paypal and other providers. Get yourself a card machine to take deposits and receive payments.


Pigment skin testing is a procedure that consists of implanting a small amount of pigment into the skin to determine whether the client is allergic to the pigment selected for this procedure. Generally people do not have any reactions to the pigmentation, however, it can be possible. This is not a mandatory procedure. Technicians may want to consider a patch test if a client typically has reactions to the following:

Bacitracin , Novocain, Lidocaine and Epinephrine, Latex protein, Pigment, Needles


A component of antibiotic ointments. Ask if they have any allergies to antibiotic ointments used at home. 

Novocain, Lidocaine and Epinephrine: 

Anesthetics that may cause reactions when used topically or given by injection. Ask if they have had any problems with anesthetics during any previous medical visits.

Latex protein: 

Found in latex gloves. It can cause immediate hives or a more delayed contact dermatitis. 


The pigment may cause reactions because it is being embedded under the dermal layer of the skin. But pigments like Permablend do not contain heavy chemicals and they don’t cause any allergies.


Needles are made of metal. Needles that are made of Nickel (use only Stainless Steel) and can cause an allergic reaction in clients who are allergic to this metal. 

True signs of an allergic reaction to the pigment: 

Cracking, bleeding, swelling, bumps, dry skin, oozing pain, Itching skin, raised blisters, scabbing, burning, won’t heal properly, tender to touch. 


According to statistics, about 80% of people at least once in their life faced hair loss. Moreover, every year the number of men and women who need help from a trichologist is increasing. This is not surprising, considering the fact that hair is a sort of human health indicator. Bad ecological situation, stress, poor diet as well as pernicious habits often lead to malfunctions of the body.

The sooner a person suffering from hair loss goes to the doctor, the more effective the treatment will be. However, sometimes people refuse to see specialists thinking that their incipient baldness is just a natural process of losing a bit of hair. So how to determine whether this process is natural or pathological?

Throughout its life a hair follicle goes through several stages which are repeated in cycles:

– The anagen phase is the active growth phase of hair follicles which lasts for three years. The cells in the root of the hair are dividing rapidly, adding to the hair shaft.

-The catagen phase is a short transition stage that occurs at the end of the anagen phase. It signals the end of the active growth of a hair. This phase lasts for about 2-3 weeks. 

-The telogen phase: the hair is released and the hair follicle rests for three months. The club hair falls out. After three months, the follicle goes back into anagen phase and begins to grow a new hair.

Typically, people lose 50 to 100 hairs per day. In other words, about 90% of hair follicles should be in anagen phase, 9% in catagen, and only 1% in telogen phase.

Alopecia is a pathological hair loss which leads to a noticeable thinning or complete baldness. In this case, more than 10% of hair follicles are in telogen and catagen phases.

Types and causes

Androgenetic (or pattern) alopecia is a genetically determined disorder which is caused by the impact of DHT (dihydrotestosterone) on the hair follicles. Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of alopecia in men (in 95% of cases). The affected areas usually involve thinning hair at the frontal and parietal regions. Female pattern baldness is less common and is characterized by decrease in hair density in central scalp, with preservation of the frontal hairline.

Diffuse alopecia is a violation of the hair growth cycle usually caused by various diseases, hormonal imbalances, stress; it might occur after taking certain medications, rigid diet, as well as exposure to radiation, chemotherapy, etc. The process involves an increased rate of hair fall and subsequent thinning from all over the scalp. This type of alopecia is more common in women than men. The prevalence of diffuse hair loss is second only to androgenetic alopecia.

Alopecia areata, also known as spot baldness, occurs in 0.05-0.1% of the population. This type of baldness is an autoimmune disorder; hair follicles are not recognized by the body as its own cells. As a result, round and oval shaped bald spots appear on the scalp as well as the body. Quite often, alopecia areata causes pitting, splitting, lines, spots or other changes to the nails.

Scarring alopecia takes 1-2% of all types of hair loss. The main cause is follicle damage: follicles are replaced with scar tissue. This type of alopecia can occur due to infection, but most of the scars are formed as a result of injury, burns or scars after surgery. This is an irreversible form of alopecia.


Generally, hair loss problem can be effectively solved with the use of special medication, external remedies, physical therapy, as well as by changing daily routines and diets. However, in cases of scar alopecia or advanced stages of androgenic alopecia finding the solution is not so simple. In the first case, the scarred area completely prevents hair from growing; in the second situation the pores of the follicles will be covered with connective tissue within 10-12 years. In such situations, the treatment does not give the desired result; however, the problem of alopecia can be solved even in very complicated cases with the help of correction.

There are two types of correction: surgical (hair transplantation) and aesthetic (tricopigmentation). Besides, these two methods often complement each other, allowing specialists to achieve amazing results when being combined.

Tricopigmentation is a method of scalp dermapigmentation which creates the illusion of hair on thinning or bald areas. This technique has been popular since 2008 and has firmly taken its niche on the market. Variety of techniques allows specialists to disguise a receding hairline, visually increase the density of hair and hide the scars after transplantation of hair follicles, face lift or head injury. This type of correction is not contrary to the alopecia treatment; therefore, it can be used as a service for people going through the process of hair restoration after hair transplant.

It is important to mention that tricopigmentation is not exactly the same thing as permanent makeup. The skin on the head is thinner and drier than the skin on the face; it requires using special pigments and equipment. Thereby, a specialist in tricopigmentation should take a special course that covers all the specifics of the technique.

Nowadays, the tricopigmentation technique is recognized globally, especially in the field of hair restoration and surgery. It is in demand among customers who are attracted by the relatively low price, natural and predictable results, painless procedures and the absence of rehabilitation period. At the same time, there are not many specialists in tricopigmentation in the world, so the competition is still low.

Considering all the advantages of tricopigmentation, it becomes obvious that this technique is a real blessing for many people as it helps them to get their attractiveness and confidence back, whereas for artists it can be a lucrative way of self-realization, as well as an opportunity to help lots of people.


2-Day Advanced Microblading With Microshading Course

If you’re looking to take your Microblading skills to the next level, We offer the best option for those who are looking to please their clients with perfect symmetry and right color selection. Our 2-day advanced  course is a high-level, hands-on class that offers advanced study on stroking and eyebrow shading techniques to already practicing pmu artists and estheticians such as;

Ombre Brow with stippling and soft-tap technique, full powdered brow, and combo brow, which combines microshading and microblading. Learn the most effective color correction techniques using the Microshading method. The cutting-edge techniques that you’ll learn in this advance class is invaluable to your advancement within the field.

Course Includes;

  • Practice on live models
  • 4 pigments and a correction color
  • Zensa Numbing Cream
  • Certification of Completion right after class
  • Continuous support
  • $250 discount on future enrollments (machine pmu class, scalp micropigmentation or medical tattooing class)
  • Great discounts on microblading supplies

PRICE :  $1,450 
Enroll Now

Pre-Procedure Instructions

Micropigmentation Pre-Procedure Information & Care

Your first procedure is incomplete until after a follow-up appointment, which must be scheduled approximately 4-8 weeks after your initial appointment.

While your skin heals, be prepared for your color intensity of your procedure to be significantly larger, bolder, brighter, or darker than what is expected for the final outcome. This is a normal and expected result of the application and healing process. The healing process will take couple days to complete, depending on how quickly the outer layer of your skin exfoliates and new skin regrows to take its place.Since delicate skin or sensitive areas may swell slightly or redden, some clients feel it best not to make social plans for a day or two following any procedure. Wear your normal makeup and bring your lip or brow pencils with you the day of the procedure.

Pre-Procedure Instructions

Eyebrows: Avoid tweezing, waxing, electrolysis, and coloring your brows for two weeks prior to the procedure if possible. This will allow your practitioner the most flexibility to achieve optimal results.

Eyeliner: Do not wear your contact lenses during eyeliner application.Remember to bring your glasses. You may resume wearing your contact lenses as soon as your eyes return to their pretreated condition. Do not use growth stimulants such as Latisse®, RapidLash®, or RevitaLash® for at least one week prior to and one week after your eyeliner procedure.

Lips: If you have any history of cold sores/fever/blisters/ herpes simplex, please take the proper prescription medication to prevent such outbreaks for at least 4 days before and after the procedure. Many physicians prescribe 12 capsules of 500mg Valtrex. Follow your physician’s instructions.

Two or three applications may be required to achieve the desired results. It is not uncommon to lose up to 70% of the color on the first application.